Mohammed Awaisu Haruna, Aminu Mohammed Dukku


There are quite a number of drugs of abuse in different societies thereby making drug and substance abuse a major problem across the world. Any substance, of natural, artificial or synthetic origin, other than food that by its chemical nature alters structure or function in the living organism is referred to as drug. Drugs of abuse like cannabis, alcohol, tranquillo-sedatives and hypnotics, stimulants and morphinetype drugs have unique social and psycho-medical effects that by acting on the brain spread to the other parts of the body. This influences a lot of functions; the use of each of these drugs is, to a certain degree, capable of producing effects associated with psychosis and other drug-related problems that require some treatment and care in hospitals and rehabilitation centers. The effects of a drug do not depend solely on chemical interactions with the body only, but the influences of expectancy; experience and mood also constitute strong determinants of drug’s effects. The cogent views of self-control theory are used in explaining how low self-control among some members of the society could be linked to drug and substance abuse mindless of the effects. Drug effects are typically classified into the specific and non-specific (placebo) effects. Specific effects are related to the concentration of chemical; they depend on the presence of chemical at certain concentrations. Non-specific or placebo effects do not depend solely on chemical interactions with the body’s tissue; but are dependent on the experiences and mood of the user before taking the drug. Placebo effects are derived from user’s unique background and perception; noting that drug effects are greater on occasional users than chronic users. The effects and problems associated with the use and abuse of marijuana, alcohol, tranquillo-sedatives and hypnotics; morphine drugs, stimulants and inhalants/solvents are presented.

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